Adjunct:any non-malt fermentable sugar (cane sugar, dextrose, honey, etc.) added to the wort.

Ale:a beer fermented with ale yeast (sometimes referred to as top-fermenting yeast because of the significant amount of activity on the top of the brew). Ale is normally fermented at temperatures above 16C.

Attenuation:how far the yeast ferments the brew to final gravity.

BeerDroid:the BrewArt equipment specifically designed for transforming wort into beer through temperature controlled fermentation.

BrewFlo:the BrewArt equipment specifically designed for dispensing quality beer, which has been made in the BeerDroid.

Bitterness Units (BU):also known as IBU.

Conditioning:Conditioning your brew, or secondary fermentation is the process that carbonates your brew, giving it fizz.

Dextrose:an adjunct, which is the equivalent to Glucose but with a mirror-image molecular structure. Dextrose for brewing is the shortened name for Dextrose Monohydrate, as it normally carries a water molecule.

Esters:aromatic compounds formed from alcohols through yeast action. They typically smell fruity and are more common in ale rather than lager brews.

Ethanol:the primary alcohol in beer formed through yeast fermenting the brew.

Fermentation:the action of yeast metabolising the sugars available in the wort, with the main bi-products being carbon dioxide and alcohol. Regardless of the yeast type (ale or lager), fermentation activity occurs throughout the brew.

Final Gravity (FG):the specific gravity of the brew once the yeast has finished fermenting all the available sugars.

Finings:most commonly derived from gelatine, added around ¾ of the way through primary fermentation, to assist in clearing the brew. The addition of finings is an intrusive method which can increase the risk of spoilage.

Flocculation:once fermentation activity slows, the yeast clump together and settle out of solution.

Fusel Alcohol:may be produced from very high temperature fermentation, fusels have sharp solvent-like aromas and flavours.

Glucose:one of the most basic units of sugar, a single sugar molecule.

Head:the foam sitting atop of a glass of beer.

Head Retention:the persistence of foam sitting atop of a glass of beer.

Hops:come in flower, plug, pellet or liquid form and are used to season beer in a similar manner to herbs in cooking. Primarily used for bittering the brew but are often added later in the brewing process for flavour and aroma.

Hydrometer:a calibrated device used to measure the specific gravity of a fluid normally by floating it in a sample tube and reading where the fluid cuts across the scale.

International Bittering Unit (IBU):the unit of measure for the amount of bitterness in the brew.

Keg Caddy:a ‘must have’ accessory, which fits snugly into grooves at the base of the BeerDroid and holds the BrewArt Keg in place for no-mess filling.

Keg Hopping:also known as Cask or Dry Hopping is the process of adding hops directly to the vessel from which it will be served.

Krausen (kroy-zen):the foamy head formed on top of the brew in the early stages of fermentation.

Lactose:a non-fermentable and moderately sweet sugar. Lactose (derived from milk) may be added to Stout, for example, to increase residual sweetness.

Lager:a beer brewed from lager yeast (sometimes referred to as bottom-fermenting yeast because of the lack of activity on the top of the brew). Normally fermented below 16C then lagered (stored for an extended period) prior to carbonating and packaging.

Lag Phase:or propagation is the period of adaptation and rapid aerobic growth of yeast upon pitching. Typically lasts from 2-12 hours and is a time where nothing much appears to be happening.

Malt Extract:usually derived from Malted Barley, could be in liquid or dry form and contains mainly Maltose along with other complex sugars. Yeast does not ferment it completely, leaving more body (carbohydrate) in the brew.

Original Gravity (OG):SG of the brew prior to fermentation.

Pitching:also known as inoculating, is the term for adding yeast to the brew.

Primary Fermentation:the first fermentation cycle, which produces a krausen (leaving a tide mark on the inside wall), sediment (at the bottom of the fermenting vessel), Carbon Dioxide gas (CO2) and alcohol. Most of the available sugar is consumed by the yeast during this cycle.

Priming:adding a small amount of fermentable sugar prior to kegging/bottling to give the beer carbonation.

Sanitise:to reduce the amount of micro-organisms to a minimum, normally performed using a chemical sanitiser after cleaning the equipment.

Secondary Fermentation:fermenting the brew in a secondary vessel, normally keg or bottle, with the addition of some priming sugar. This process carbonates the brew, giving it fizz.

Specific Gravity (SG):a measure (using a hydrometer) of the brew density compared to the density of water. Most hydrometers are calibrated to read 1.000 when floated in water at 20C. Typical brews may start in the range 1.030 – 1.050 prior to fermentation (OG) and finish in the range 1.004 – 1.012 (FG).

Yeast:are single-celled microorganisms of the fungus family. Yeast for brewing beer come in a myriad of strains or varieties and display some tolerance toward alcohol.

Wort (wert):the term for a brew prior to fermentation.